Sunday, August 21, 2022

History Paper 2 Marking Scheme Mangu High



1.      Identify the theory explaining that the world and all that is in was created by a special

supreme being.                                                                                                                  (1mk)

2.      Name the group of old stone age man, who is associated with oldwan tools.                 (1mk)

3.      Name two ancient writing in Mesopotamia and Egypt.                                                   (2mks)

4.      Give two forms of traditional currency used in Africa.                                                   (2mks)

5.      Give two forms of water transport used during ancient times.                                        (2mks)

6.      State two uses of horn blowing in traditional African societies.                                      (2mks)

7.      State one reason why African slaves were preferred during the Trans- Atlantic slave

trade.                                                                                                                                 (1mk)

8.      Identify two chartered companies used to administer East Africa during the process of

colonization.                                                                                                                      (2mks)

9.      State two factors that facilitated scientific revolution in Europe from 14th century.       (2mks)

10.  Give two duties of the Katikiro in the Buganda community.                                          (2mks)

11.  State one main function of the royal fire in Mwene Mtapa Kingdom.                            (1mk)

12.  Identify one way through which the Europeans maintained peace among themselves during

the partition of Africa.                                                                                                      (1mk)

13.  Name two former Portuguese colonies in Africa.                                                             2mks)

14.  Give one specialized UN agency which finances development programmes in developing

Nations.                                                                                                                             (1mk)

15.  State the main reason that lead to the end of World war II                                             (1mk)

16.  State the function of the OAU Liberation committee                                                      (1mk)

17.  Give one military organization formed by power blocks during the cold war period.     (1mk)


Answer any three questions from this section

18.  a) Give three stages in the evolution of man after Homo Habilis.                                    (3mks)

b) Explain six cultural practices of Homo-erectus during the old stone age period.        (12mks)

19.  a) Outline three advantages of road transport.                                                                 (3mks)

b) Explain six effects of telecommunication in modern society.                                      (12mks)

20.  a) Give three systems of administration used by the colonists in Africa.                         (3mks)

b) Explain six results of the collaboration between the British and Lewanika.                (12mks)

21.  a) Give three methods used by Mozambican nationalists to struggle for Independence.            (3mks)

b) Explain six challenges faced by FRELIMO in nationalist struggle.                            (12mks)


Answer any two questions from this section

22.  a) Give three reasons why the British used direct rule to administer Zimbambwe.         (3mks)

b) Explain six reasons for the failure of the policy of assimilation.                                  (12mks)

23.  a) Apart from Britain name three permanent member states of the UN security council.(3mks)

b) Explain six causes of the cold war after 1945.                                                             (12mks)

24.  a) Give three organs of EAC 2001                                                                                   (3mks)

b) Explain six achievements of EAC – 2001                                                                    (12mks)





1.      -     Creation theory

(1 x 1 =1mk)

2.      -     Austrolopithecus, Homo habilis

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

3.      -     Mesopotamia – Hieroglyphics, Egypt – Cuneiform

(2 x 1 = 2mks)

4.      -     Gold, clothes , cowries shells , iron , copper

(2 x 1 = 2mks)

5.       -    Rafts, canoes, Dhows, Oar  boats

(2 x 1 = 2mks)

6.      -     To announce take over of a new ruler

-     Summarizing people to important meetings

-     Calling warriors to war

-     Announcing commencement of various ceremonies

(Any two 2 x1 = 2mks)

7.      -     Were taught to be resistant to many diseases

-     Were readily available in large numbers

-     Were cheaper to use than Europeans or red Indians

-     Were taught to be adaptable to hot and humid tropical climate

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

8.      -     Imperial British East Africa Company

-     German East Africa Company

(1 x1 = 1mk)

9.      -     Renaissance time made people develop interest in research/ learning

-     Governments and individual financed scientific research

-     Need to solve problems like food shortages, diseases

-     Religion failed to answer all questions

(Any 2 x 1 = 2mks)

10.  -     Collected taxes

-     Planned wars

-     Informed Kabaka about war

-     Planned public works

-     Protected Kabaka

(2 x 1 = 2mks)

11.  -     Sign of unity (unifying factor)

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

12.  -     Signing treaties among themselves

-     Organizing the Berlin conference to lay down guiding principles

      of partition                                                                              (2 x 1 = 2mks)

13.  -     Angola

-     Mozambique

-     Portuguese Guinea

(2 x 1 =2mks)

14.  -     The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

(IBRD) or World Bank

     -      The International Monetary Fund(IMF)

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

15.  -     The bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki with atomic bomb by the USA

(1 x1 = 1mk)

16.  -     Co-ordinates activities of liberation movements against colonization

In Africa

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

17.  -     War saw pact.

-     North Atlantic treaty organization (NATO)

(1 x 1= 1mk)


18.  a)-  Homo – Erectus

-     Homo – Sapiens

-     Homo Sapiens sapiens

(3 x 1 = 3mks)

     b) -  Made tools and weapons (Acheullian tools)

        -   Lived in caves and tree –tops

        -   Hairy body kept them warm

       -    Ate raw meat, fruits, vegetables, insects and roots

       -    Lived in small groups

      -     Used gestures

     -      Division of labour

     -      Hunted animals

(6 x 2 = 12mks)

19.  a)-  High number of accidents on roads leads to lose of life

-     Pollution caused by exhaust fumer

-     The use of roads is limited to specific areas i.e  cannot go beyond land.

-     Construction of all weather roads is expensive

-     Due to increased number of vehicles on roads traffic congestion is a

major concern in most cities and towns

     -      When roads become impassable especially those that are not all weather roads

    -       The quantity of goods carried is limited as roads cannot carry bulky goods compared

            to the railway

                                                                                                                        (3 x 1  = 3mks)

b) -       Improved communication

    -       Mass entertainment

    -       Education of the public through media

    -       In the transport of ship at sea and Aeroplane in the air co-ordinates

through telecommunication.

     -      Exploration of outer space – satellites sent to space send information

     -      Cultural imperialism

     -      Promotes national unity

     -      Provides employment

(6 x 2 = 12mks)

20.  a) - Direct rule

 -    Assimilation

-     Indirect rule

-     Association

(Any 3 x1 = 3mks)

   b) -    Bulozi lost their independence to the British

      -     The Lozi aristocracy was broken and the royal class was reduced

only to the position of tax collectors on behalf of BSAC

      -     Barotseland was incorporated into Northern Rhodesia

     -      Bulozi got the British protection against their enemies Ndebele

    -       Though with less power, Lewanika was made a paramount chief

     -      Led to introduction of western education and development of

infrastructure in Barotseland                                                             (6 x2 = 12mks)

21.  a) - Guerrilla warfare

-     Through press which articulated African grievances

-     Formation of associations

-     Strikes against forced labour  and poor working conditions in 1947 and 1956

-     Formation of political parties like FRELIMO, UDENAMO,UNAM and MANU

-     Civil education from FRELIMO

b)  -      Internal division due to ideological differences and selfish ambitions

     -      Apartheid regime in South Africa and unilateral Declaration of independence in

            S. Rhodesia joined forces with Portuguese against FRELIMO.

    -       Competition from rural guerilla movements such as Revolutionary Committee of


-       Attack of FRELIMO from the church claiming that it was a terrorist organization, thus many church followers were reluctant to join.

-       Asassination of Eduardo Mondlane in Dar-es salam in February 3rd 1969 demotivated the Africans from active nationalist struggle.

-       Shortage of basic needs among the Africans in the initial stages of the war.

-       Portuguese used ruthless and cruel methods in suppressing the FRELIMO supporters such as massacre of 400 civilians at Wiriyamu in December 1972.

(6 x 2 = 12mks)


22.  a) - They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe

-     Local political institutions based on Induna system had been destroyed during the British occupation of Zimbabwe.

-     To ensure complete control of African to end African resistance

-     Company officials in the area were familiar with the area and British system of administration.

-     Adequate finance for administration from the colony.

-     Adequate personnel from the white settlers

(3 x1 = 3mks)

b) -       School system did not do much to indoctrinate the Africans sufficiently of values

of the policy.

    -       It was an expensive policy to implement and maintain.

    -       The policy was only confined in the four communes while the rest was left untouched.

    -       The system faced opposition from the Muslim.

    -       Cultural disparity that existed between African and the French

 e.g Africans were polyganists.

    -       Racial discrimination the French resented the idea of equally with

Africans in parliament.

  -         The African chief were hostile to the policy because it reduced their power

and authority were undermined.

  -         Increased desertification from African elites who were elected to the

French parliament.

  -         Differences between French legal system and African customs.

  -         It was unworkable due to high standards and difficult conditions expected for

one to be assimilated.

   -        Rise of Nationalism which undermined the policy.

( 6 x 2 = 12mks)

23.  a) - USA

-     France

-     Russia

-     China

(3 x 1 = 3mks)

    b) -   Ideological difference between capitalist USA and the communist USSR

       -    Arms race and failure of the two powers to agree on arm reduction plan.

       -    Economic rivalry and formation of marshal plan by USA and COMECON by USSR

       -    Formation of military alliances and military support to opponents enemies.

       -    Use of Russian veto powers in the UN to defeat UN proposal.

     -      Differences over Germany as UN Allies wanted a strong Germany to assist in

            Economic prosperity in other UN European nations while the soviet union wanted a

            Politically weak Germany

(6 x 2 = 12mks)

24.  a) - The summit of Heads of States

-     The council of ministers

-     Co-ordinating committee

-     Sectoral committee

-     East Africa court of justice

-     East Africa legislative Assembly

-     The secretariat

(3 x 1 = 3mks)

b) -       The civil society is cooperating with a view of enhancing its role in different fields.

    -       Improved diplomatic relations

   -        EAC promotes trade

   -        Professionals are able to interact more easily

   -        Tariffs for industrial goods have been reduced while investment procedures eased

    -       Introduction of the EA passports and opening of the borders has made it easy for

            Citizens to move across the border

   -        Improvement and expansion of transport and communication networks






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